Before We Start, Some Definitions (not legal, but close enough for piano work)

Tuning -             Pulling the string to the correct tension to make the correct tone for the key pushed - varies from ~180 to                              400lbs. This creates overall tension on the frame of the piano from 16 to 40 tons (32,000lbs to 80,000lbs)

                         A440 is the international pitch standard which means the A above middle C beats 440 times a second.

Pitch Adjusting - Because of the number of strings (235 Average) ,their tensions and the springiness of the soundboard, 

                         a piano must be very near the correct tension or at least have the tension spread evenly across the piano

                         to be tuned with stability.

Grand Piano -     A grand piano will have three corners (one may be rounded) and the strings are parallel to the floor.

Vertical Piano-    The strings are vertical or perpendicular to the floor.  Vertical pianos are named by height.  Spinet ~36",                              Console ~39", Studio ~45" and Upright ~52"

Square Grand-     A large rectangular case on four legs.  The strings are parallel to the floor which is a dead giveaway.  Old                            and expensive to tune or work on.


Grand or Upright


Pitch Raise/Lower


Grand Only

Dust Soundboard/Plate

Clean Action Cavity

Regulate Action

Replace Action Parts

Clean Strings

Regulate Pedals

Treat Pinblock

Upright Only

Regulate Action

Replace Action Parts